The end of British Colonialism from the subcontinent was an indication of independence which was long awaited. This historical ending of the empire provoked some regional and local disputes but more importantly, it demarcated geographical lines, which separated the two major ethnicities of the Sub-continent i.e Hindus and Muslims. The regions dominated by Muslim population were amalgamated to Pakistan and those where Hindus were in majority became part of India.
The two nation theory of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was focal to start the struggle for separate homeland. The notion of two nations was that the religious and cultural differences between Hindus and Muslims would not let them live together peacefully. Not so long after it was propounded by Sir Syed that various savage events, featuring mass protests and at times bloodshed, materialized by mid 20th century, providing credence to the theory and making it a potent idea which would later become a key tenet of the struggle for freedom for Muslims.
Soon after 14 August 1947, when Pakistan achieved independence , mankind witnessed one of the largest human exodus in history. Huge flux of immigrants occur to both the infant counties. Further , the shadow of tense and hate caused the genocide of thousands of people . Scores of people lost their family members, many were looted along the way and some died because of hunger. The atrocious tales of trains being blown up, women being raped, dead bodies hanging from trees or floating on rivers for days and human flesh being torn apart by vultures during the days of independence remain some of the most gruesome deeds humans have meted out to their fellows in the known history.
During this entire ordeal, the personality of great leader Quaid-e-Azam remained noble. He raised Muslims’ political consciousness and stood for them from the banner of All India Muslim league. The wisdom of Quaid made Muslims united and they held steady even when the struggle turned body.
The work and vision of Allama Iqbal, propagated through poetry, made the Muslims aware of the precedents and hopeful of a future. Allama represented Muslims in different conferences like Round table conference etc.
History of Pakistan becomes incomplete if we don’t mention the great names like Sir Aga khan III who was the founding member and first president of All India Muslim League. The sacrifices of Ali brothers during Khilafat Movement and many other prominent political and religious figures who made Muslims of the Sub-continent united through their works.
After 1947, the situation has been different. The country came across wars with India over Kashmir because of unfair land demarcation. East Pakistan was separated from us and achieved it’s own independence. The government structure has rather been unstable with as many as four military take overs. In either case governance has been abysmal–of which the poor ranking of Pakistan on various well-being indicators, including the HDI, is reflective.
Furthermore, better reforms in sectors like Taxation, Education , Communication , Agriculture , Foreign-exchange could boom the worst scenario which the country is facing these days. Such reforms will be helpful to stabilize the economy and to upgrade the literacy rate of the country. Also provision of jobs will reduce poverty in the country.
Secondly, Pakistan has to create friendly relations with the neighbouring countries . Consequences of the ongoing 18 years old war spill over into Pakistan because of the long porous Duran line. The geo-strategic location of Pakistan is key issue in developing good relations with India due to which the spills over from Afghanistan accentuate in Pakistan ; the spy activity like that of Kulbushan Jadev incident alters peace in Pakistan. Moreover, Chinese investment in Pakistan through CPEC to develop Infrastructure, Communication and Coastlines though pushes China and Pakistan closer but this relation produces fraction of tense relations between China and India and thus again sour relations between Pakistan and India. Such mishaps are not only a challenge to maintain peace in the region but also ceases Economic stability and developmental activities in the region. For example TAIP project was started in 1980s but due to security challenges this project has been ceased. Such a solution is needed through which the Afghanistan war can be demolished and good relations with India can be started. The friendly relations would prosper cultural exchange, people to people connection, trade and commerce activities and most importantly peace could be sustained.
To conclude, Pakistan has been achieved through hard struggle . Thousands of people have given their lives just to see Muslims of Sub-continent independent. The existing government has to work a lot in aspects of education , relations with neighbouring countries etc.